What is Orientalism? What aspects of colonialism inspired Orientalism? How has it affected art, both in terms of how the subject matter was portrayed by the artist and in the ways the work has been viewed? When discussing how the works are viewed take into consideration how artist wanted their works viewed, how the art was actually viewed when it was created, and finally how we, as modern viewers see it?
2. How important was Napoleon Bonaparte’s use of art as propaganda and censorship in the rise and consolidation of his power? Choose two pieces of art commissioned by Napoleon (does not have to be from chapter 18) that support your argument of his use of art propaganda. List the title, artist, date, and medium of each piece. Refer to each piece at least three times when composing your statements.
3. Define the Protestant Reformation and the Counter Reformation. How did these two movements affect art? Choose one piece during the Reformation and one piece created during the Counter Reformation and compare and contrast the two pieces. Be sure to point out changes in style between the two periods. List the title, artist, date, and medium of each piece if known.
4. Discuss the ways in which the movement toward Realism in art reflected the social and political concerns of the nineteenth century. Choose one piece of art created in the Realism period that supports your argument. List the title, artist, date, and medium. How does this piece reveal the concerns that you mentioned in the first part of the question? Give at least three examples.
5. Compare Neoclassicism and Romanticism as two cultural expressions of mid-eighteenth to mid-nineteenth century Europe. You must discuss the political atmosphere in both periods and how it affected art. Choose one piece of art from the Neoclassical period and one from the Romantic period that support your claim. List the title, artist, date, and medium of each piece. Refer to each of these pieces in at least three instances for this purpose.
6. Neither of these works was meant to be exhibited in a museum case for an art-loving public seeking a cultural experience. Both took on their primary meaning in the process of the performance of a cultural ritual. Discuss the ways in which an understanding of the ritual context of each is necessary if we are to grasp their cultural meanings for those who made them and saw them in use. And finally, how did they end up in museums?
7. The horrific violence of war and political oppression has been eloquently expressed by many artists throughout the history of art. Discuss the political circumstances that led to the creation of these two examples and assess how they relate to the styles of the artists and their time. Who was the audience for these works? Be sure to list artist, medium, and date of each.