Building Information Modelling (BIM) is a modelling software defined by its unique approach towards building and construction. It is designed to operate through modelling technology which is comprised of multiple processes for production, communication, and analysis of building information and data models. The use of BIM is aimed at improving the efficiency of designing, construction and operation of buildings and other structures through information retrieval, 3D visualization, and integrated automated drawing production. BIM also helps in automatic detection of conflicts in data and information continuity, intelligent documentation, and the automation of material take. Despite the fact that there are several benefits associated with the use and application of BIM in the construction industry, there is a wide perception among stakeholders that it is not fully implemented as it should be due to factors such as the initial cost of implementation which is quite high and lack of client demand in the design and construction of buildings. These barriers act as a major hindrance towards the implementation of BIM on a wider scale. For the process to be more effective, clients need to have adequate knowledge and understanding on the application and benefits of BIM and the processes involved in the implementation. This research includes a detailed literature review on building designs and various application models including 2D models which have been used in the construction industry. A detailed analysis of the limitations of visualization, cost estimation, as well as consistency in information and data retrieval is also outlined in the paper. In addition, the challenges faced in building design and have been addressed using 3D models have also been addressed.
Table of Contents Executive Summary 1 Introduction 4 Literature Review 6 The Original Design Model 6 Initial 2D CAD Method 6 Current Design Tools 7 Building Information Modelling (BIM) 7 The Concept used in BIM 8 The Maturity and Capability BIM Models 9 Aim(s) and Scope of the Project 9 Significance of the Project 10 Methodology 10 Research Gaps 11 Resources Requirements for BIM 11 Application of Building Information Modelling In the Construction Industry 11 Structural Information 13 Structural Design Process 13 Structural Workflows 13 Construction Analysis 14 Benefits of Building Information Modelling 14 a. Proper Coordination 15 Collaboration 16 Visualisation 17 Cost Estimation 18 Conclusion 19 Reference 22
BIM modelling is a digital representation of both the physical and functional features of a building structure. With the increasing adoption of Information Technology (IT) within the construction industry, BIM is slowly become a very popular concept. It is capable of sharing data and information on particular facilities thus providing a reliable platform for informed decision making (Ibrahim, & Komali, 2018, p. 13). These details are critical especially during the monitoring of the lifecycle of a construction facility. According to the National BIM standards of 2014, BIM is defined as the earliest conception of the demolition phase. It is therefore important to realize that BIM for the management of information flow is not just a design tool for the design team but also the entire project team.
The construction industry is considered as one of the most critical elements of economic growth. The industry has however been experiencing numerous challenges including gradual decline in the levels of productivity of its workforce in the last few years. Reductions in labour productivity have called for more labour per contract hours thus increasing the cost of construction (Dave, 2013, p. 12). As a result, it has been determined that the industry lacks any new ideas and strategies to save or minimize the cost of construction. One of the main reasons for the gradual decline in labour productivity is the continued application and use of traditional designs such as 2D Computer Aided Drafting (CAD) technology. Traditional construction approaches use involved a bid and build criteria (Dave, 2013, p. 14). The roles of the stakeholders are determined during the construction phase of the structure. When this is done, it acts as a barrier to the consistency of information flow and collaboration between clients and contractors.
It is also important to note that 2D CAD drawings do not integrate the architect’s and engineer’s designs with the owners and the contractors. The result of this could be conflict of information which eventually affects the productivity of the workforce (Dave, 2013, p. 14). 2D drawing models also fail to integrate the drawings with the schedules, as well as the cost of the construction. Hijazi, Alkass, and Zayed (2013, p. 4) noted that 2D drawings are not flexible towards changing trends in the industry. As a result, firms which utilize this method end up being limited to only a particular set of projects.
Figure 1. An example of a building Model Developed Using BIM Tools.
Technical evolutions in the field of architecture, engineering, as well as the construction industry have seen major improvements of designs from 2D to 3D (currently known as BIM). The technological advancement can be attributed to the increased need to solve various problems experienced in project management, especially in large construction projects (Hijazi, Alkass, and Zayed, 2013, p. 14). This research aims at exploring the application of BIM in building designs, its benefits in the construction industry, and how much it assists engineers, contractors, and architects in the management of their projects. The research also reviewed past and existing design tools as used in the design and construction industry.
Figure 2. Professionals that Use BIM in the Construction Field (Hijazi, Alkass, and Zayed, 2013, p. 25)
This research seeks to evaluate the findings made by various researchers on different with regard to building design and construction. It is important to note that building design and construction has undergone a lot of developments within the past few years. This can be attributed to improvements which have taken place in technology and innovations. According to Lu, Peng, Shen, & Li (2013, p. 195) from different researches, a common factor that comes out explicitly are the different stages of design tools which include the original design model, the initial design model, the current design model and the Building Information Model (BIM). Each one of these stages is explored in detail.
The Original Design Model
The original design is a model used in the mid-19th century as a design tool for building design and construction. Khodeir, &Nessim (2017, p. 23) indicates that during this period, the design involved the use and application of simple designs techniques and materials in the production of drawings. The tools used in the production of the original design included pen, paper, ruler and erasers. However, these design tools had numerous limitations and challenges in terms of visualization, drawing, and the cost of production. Lu, Peng, Shen, & Li (2013, p. 197) in their analysis showed that the model also lacked proper storage of data and had a great disconnect towards information flow. The drawings only made sense to architects thus compromising the participation of clients and other stakeholders. Estimates on the construction costs were not clearly outlined thus making the scheduling process more difficult (Lu, Peng, Shen, & Li (2013, p. 1958). The upside of this design approach was the advanced mathematics and building materials made the building design improve very fast.
Initial 2D CAD Method
The Initial 2D CAD design method is as a result of the invention of computers. The 2D Computer Aided Drafting (CAD) design tool was first adopted after the end of World War II (Salas, 2016, p. 45). This was when the American military allowed the use of the technology in civil applications. At the beginning, the tool was highly unpopular but as personal computers increased in number, different renowned organizations took up the method which eventually led to the development of AutoCAD (Salas, 2016, p. 48). This design tool was more advanced compared to all the previous tools. It also enabled digital representation of designs. During this period, architects had started using the software in design works. According to Manderson, Jefferies, & Brewer (2015, p. 72), the fact that the tool still had several limitations regarding the flow of information and the incorporation of various parameters, it still remained the most advanced design technology tool.
Current Design Tools
The advancement in technology from the 2D CAD to 3D simulation has significantly improved the design process. The development of 2D CAD to 3D has therefore improved the relationship between structural engineers and architects. It has also tremendously improved the design process in building designs. This has not only improved the visualization of the design but also the design thinking from pure visualization to stimulation.
Building Information Modelling (BIM)
Building Information Modelling (BIM) isbeyond 3D modelling. It involves the collection of 3D volumes, 2D shapes as well as points and lines. These symbols in the BIM contain both qualitative and quantitative data. According to Azhar (2011 p. 242), BIM can be described as a sociotechnical system comprised of manmade technology and tends to have institutional effects on its implementation. It is comprised of integrated intelligent building components which hold various data attributes and parametric rules for each one of the objects. Giel, and Issa (2013, p. 514) describes BIM as a process and practice of visualization of design and constructions. These practices take place across the entire lifecycle of the project. Jones (2017, p. 28) states that BIM is an interface for sharing information and knowledge between the project team and various other participants. The tool showcases the quality of 3D technology in buildings. In social BIM, this type of modelling is seen to be more collaborative as it enables exchange of information between engineers, contractors, and architects (Linehan, &Andress, 2013 p. 21). Social BIM gives contractors an opportunity to use their expertise and skills to bring together a team with the required amount of knowledge. In addition, construction managers can use the model to process various reports such as construction reports, scheduling reports, cost reports, as well as coordination plan reports (Linehan, &Andress, 2013 p. 21). The information collected using BIM is then used to model the prefabricated product.
Another approach suggested by Shino (2013) is the intimate BIM. It can only be achieved through sharing of rewards and risks between the construction managers, the clients, and the design team. This can only be achieved through the use of the BIM integrated delivery system. According to Shino (2013 p. 34), past experience shows that there are several questions on the implementation of BIM that remain unanswered. These include issues surrounding the purpose of using BIM, the type of information that is important for BIM, the people responsible for the maintenance of the BIM, and the available BIM models.
The Concept used in BIM
BIMutilizes different features such as usage, structures, functions in finding elements in parts such as doors, stairs, windows, and walls, as well as parametric features and functions of various components. It also reflects various changes that could occur in material components of buildings with regard to its configuration. This is implemented by separating various features of the building. Various properties of material components used in the design and construction of the building can also be found using different simulation models (Alshdiefat, 2018 p. 12). This eases the possibility of decision making in case the construction projects come to an unprecedented stall. BIM also generates the information required to complete the prefabrication in relation to the expenses, materials, and schedules. The information generated from the analysis is however dependent on the structure and ambience of the building project. According to Egwunatum, Esther, and Akaigwe (2017, p. 29), a BIM can be viewed as a construction project which has been simulated and is comprised of 3D models linking all the required information concerning a given project. BIM is bets used in the simulation of the design of a building within a virtual environment. The simulation has the advantage of being carried around in a computer system when using a software package. According to Alshdiefat (2018, p. 16), the virtual points of the building can be used in the experimentation of the construction project before actualization. The virtual mistakes made may not have any serious consequence if they are identified at an early stage before any activity can be implemented on site.
The Maturity and Capability BIM Models
There are two different types of models used in BIM: The maturity and capability models. According to Maskil-Leitan, and Reychav (2018, p. 1017), the maturity model of the BIM is comprised of a number of maturity levels in respect to technologies, policies, and processes. The maturity is different at each level of the project. The defined maturity levels include the initial level, the managed level, the integrated level and the optimization level (Maskil-Leitan, and Reychav, 2018 p. 1017). Capability maturity on the other hand is developed with the goal of evaluating the capacity of the project team to perform with the software. The capability of the BIM scale ranges from 0 to 3 and is mainly dependent on the performance of individuals or the organization. Comparison of the maturity model to the capability model of the BIM shows that the former is the measure of the degree of excellence (Maskil-Leitan, and Reychav, 2018 p. 1017). The capability model on the other hand has different stages which must be achieved by individuals when implementing various tasks.
Aim(s) and Scope of the Project
The aim of this research is to explore the application and benefits of BIM in the construction industry. To achieve this, the following objectives must be met.
- Identification and discussion of the application of BIM by outlining the building information modelling tools being used by the project teams in their design works.
- Evaluation of the impact of the use of BIM in the construction industry
- Determination of the benefits of using BIM in the construction industry.
The research will discuss the benefits of BIM in construction, the use of the building information modelling benefits all participants in the construction industry ranging from the client, construction manager, architect, engineers, contractor, and subcontractor. These are the people who frequently use BIM tools to achieve the desired results. The study also investigates how the BIM increases labour productivity and at the same timereducing the cost of building, design, and construction.
The significance of the Project
This research will greatly influence the adoption of BIM in building design and construction. The research will be able to demonstrate the benefits of using BIM in the design and construction of buildings over the traditional methods of design. Additionally, the research will also show the applications and benefits of BIM. Through the research, participants will be able to clearly understand how technology has transformed the construction industry. BIM for infrastructure has barely been utilized in the construction industry. The research will demonstrate the benefits of using BIM in infrastructure development.
This research mainly uses qualitative data to determine the applications and benefits of BIM in the construction industry. A detailed literature review comparing the views of different researchers on the topic will be provided. The literature review will also discuss the specific BIM tools used in building design and construction. This will provide a clear background for understanding the concept of BIM modelling. Various case studies outlining the key and general benefits of BIM to the construction industry will also be provided. The research findings will be comprised of documented information as compiled by other authors. Materials to support the research will be obtained from online libraries such as Google Scholar andEBSCOhost, among others. Sources will be selected on the criteria of being up to date, relevance to the subject, and being from a credible source. This information will be compiled and used to develop the research.
The research is limited to the findings reported by other researchers on the applications, uses, and benefits of BIM technology. The research will, therefore, remain as a general one based on the set objectives rather than providing a case-oriented study on the benefits of adopting BIM in specific projects. BIM, on the other hand, has specific applications which are only useful to technical teams and barely to customers and government agencies. The study will, therefore, give the general uses of BIM in the design and construction of buildings. Very little information is available on the extent to which BIM has been applied in the construction industry. The research will help explore this area and address the issues that have not been tackled.
Resources Requirements for BIM
There are a number of BIM tools available in the construction industry. Their primary functions are quite diverse. The tools include architectural modelling tools, the 3D modelling software, site development tools, electrical modelling tools, and fire modelling tools. For 3D modelling, Cadpipe HVAC can be used for modelling of the HVAC system; Revit architecture can be used for 3D architectural modelling; AutoCAD MEP can be used for MEP modelling, while AutoCAD Civil 3D can be applied in site development. For structural modelling, Fastrak can be used. For fire sprinkler design, AutoSPRINK VR will be used in the modelling, while FireCad will be used for fire piping design and modelling.
Application of Building Information Modelling In the Construction Industry
The application ofBIMis utilized across all the different stages of design and construction. In the design phase, the application of BIM can optimize the impact of the technology on a particular project because of its high capability to alter the cost (Titlow, 2009, p. 17). The project team can also come up with different ideas concerning the project and hence provide solutions for various challenges that may arise as the project progresses. Cost control in a project can also be achieved through the cooperation and coordination of the entire project team (Titlow, 2009, p. 18). This will enhance the collaborative efforts of each member of the team.
At the pre-construction stage, BIM can be applied in different instances. It can be applied to the enhancement of the current standards and conditions of the model. This would help in the design to improve the accuracy of the documentation of the conditions (Jian et al., 2014, p. 8). BIM can also be applied in the design, planning, scheduling, site analysis, and estimation of various costs in a construction project. All these applications will improve the design to build approach, which eventually reduces errors and work duplications to be performed at this stage (Jian et al., 2014, p. 10). Phase descriptions in the construction of various infrastructural projects using BIM include planning, Cost estimation, phase planning, site analysis, and programming.
Designing is mainly comprised of design review, code validation, LEED evaluation, mechanical analysis, structural analysis, energy analysis, design authoring, and operations which include disaster planning, space management and tracking, asset management, building system analysis, and maintenance schedule. It brings on board all the stakeholders to reason together and makes ease of execution of all other activities to be carried out in the construction stage and post construction stage (Aw Nien, and MdAzreeOthuman, 2017, p. 429). The following applications for building information are the main in the construction industry.
Figure 3. The Application of BIM in the Construction Industries (Larson & Golden 2007, pp.75).
Different forms of information are required during construction activities. The information may include details on material types and material properties. This information is useful during structural analysis which is very important in building design and construction. According to Khodeir, and Nessim (2017, p. 18), BIM gives a window for input into the design. The developed design can be updated with all the necessary information. Therefore, the structural information can be generated by any of the parties involved or a member of the project team (Kehily, 2016, p. 3). Eventually, any analysis with regard to the design of the building can be generated.
Structural Design Process
BIM can be applied in the building design process in the interpretation of architectural plans. It helps structural engineers to interpret the design and therefore set out the foundation. This helps them in generating an analytical model for the building (Ibrahim, and Komali, 2018, p. 13). During the prefabrication and simulation of the design, the model gives the physical representation of the structure.
BIM is used in construction workflows. The timelines of activities performed in the construction of any infrastructural facility dictate that both the design and documentation of the building are performed alongside each other. According to Manderson, Jefferies, and Brewer (2015, p. 72), this enables the project engineers and other stakeholders to perform a detailed analysis of the structure. BIM is used to develop an integrated model of the design which is comprised of the simulated design, which drives both the documentation and the coordination used in the analysis.
BIM is a vital tool in structural analysis. This includes analysis of both the simulated design and the physical design. The analysis should be carried out simultaneously. BIM provides a common modelling interface for both the physical and simulated designs (Azhar, 2011, p. 243). BIM is very critical to every team member during the construction phase of the project. This includes planning, design, construction, and the operation phases.
Benefits of Building Information Modelling
There are several benefits associated with the use of BIM in the building and design of various structures in the construction industry. According to Hijazi, Alkass, and Zayed (2009, p. 4), most of these benefits are realized during the construction phase and then after construction phase. In fact, throughout the project lifecycle, BIM is very critical. During construction, BIM helps to drastically reduce the cost of the project. It is also widely used in other areas such as sequencing, fabrication, estimation of costs, and the use of BIM at the site.
Some of the main benefits of BIM at the construction phase include system analysis of the building, scheduling of the maintenance of the building, tracking of the design and construction of a building, asset management, planning for disasters, and modelling of the available records (Melzner, Zhang, Teizer, and Bargstädt, 2013, p. 664). BIM is very critical in the maintenance of schedules throughout the life of the structure. The automation systems in BIM are mainly used in controlling and monitoring the application of the mechanical and electrical equipment. This helps to model the records with the aim to developing a more successful maintenance program. In addition, the installed systems in a building which need to be monitored include energy facilities, lighting systems, and mechanical systems, among others. The systems are mainly used to measure the performance of a building. The outcome of the analysis can be used to determine if specific segments require upgrading or any other changes(Melzner, Zhang, Teizer, and Bargstädt, 2013, p. 667). A detailed analysis of the benefits of BIM is given below.
3D coordination of the construction team with the engineer, architect, and the client is best when it started in the early stages of the design phase. At this stage, BIM should be implemented immediately. For example, if the architect is giving the two-dimensional designs or drawings, the construction manager or the project manager should then convert the two-dimensional drawing to three-dimensional intelligence using BIM (Giel, and Issa, 2013, p. 515). When the specialist or consultants contractors and steel fabricators are engaged at the implementation stage, they will need to spatially coordinate their tasks.
Collaboration between these individuals can be started off immediately after the construction of the model. This will help to ensure that any clearance clash or conflicts that are likely to emerge are eliminated or resolved in time. Collaboration efforts between the construction manager and other contractors should be done in advance before the commencement of the actual construction (Giel, and Issa, 2013, p. 515). This will help to reduce design mistakes and errors at the early stages of the construction phase. It will also improve understanding of the timelines that need to be maintained while the construction work is being done. For instance, in the construction of the Colorado Denver Health Science Centre, the construction phase was separated with the BIM, in accordance with one of the towers (Larson, and Golden, 2007, p. 75). This helped to resolve some issues if the system and mechanical challenges experienced in the past.
BIM allows construction planning which entails scheduling and sequencing of the design. Coordination of virtual constructions in a given space and time allows the integration of various tasks involved in the construction project. Coordination in the utilization of the scheduling introduces four-dimensional views of the model (Lu, Peng, Shen, & Li, 2013, p. 201). There are two different methods of creating four-dimensional views of BIMs. The first method is the critical path while the second one is the line of balance. The critical path method included coordinated activities assigned at different durations of time. The interdependence of different activities in the project is added either as successors or predecessors to create another activity (Nepal, Staub-French, Pottinger, and Zhang, 2013, p. 556). Additionally, the duration of the activities is entered taking into consideration the duration and dependency of the activities.
The longest path is referred to as the critical path. If one activity is not completed within the anticipated timeline, the total duration of the whole project will be pushed out or further down (Lu, Peng, Shen, & Li, 2013, p. 202). The collaboration of events or activities in using BIM will reduce delays by anticipating any challenges or problems at the design stage. It also allows the coordination of all stakeholders involved in the project ranging from the architect, engineer, contractor and the client to brainstorm and come up with a workable solution in good time (Lu, Peng, Shen, & Li, 2013, p. 204). This helps to ensure that the lifecycle of the project takes place smoothly, thus building information modelling tool gives collaborative nature on the project thus making the project be within the schedule.
The line of balance technique in BIM utilizes location as the basis for scheduling. According to Lu, Peng, Shen, & Li (2013, p. 201), the technique gives the durations of activities based on the size of the sequence and location. It focuses on the locations for a trade to be completed before another trade sets in. This coordination approach reduces the mobilizations and resources. The overall effect of this line of balance will help in monitoring repetitive tasks during the construction phase.
The heart of the BIM process is collaboration. This involves operating all activities of the construction site in a collaborative team with the aim of achieving a common goal. Team collaboration will give more merit to the construction industry including better understanding, improved communication which contributes to improved productivity, quality service delivery, and cost certainty (Maletz, 2016, p. 56). Ultimately, continuous collaboration among teams produces a better outcome. BIM modelling creates an environment for collaborative workflow which requires the incorporation of culture and behaviour, digital tools, and the right forms of contracts. BIM enables communication, information sharing, frequent updates, and the use of information between different members of the project team (Maletz, 2016, p. 56). This is enabled by interoperable data in the BIM tool. The interoperability of the BIM in data sharing enables modelling across different phases of BIM projects (Rajendran, & Clarke, 2011, p. 44). This has been made possible by the use of the internet which has encouraged innovation and development.
BIM modelling is a process-oriented way of bringing teams together to create a collaborative tool. It helps to ensure that there is a smooth workflow from one team to the other. The construction industry, therefore, has an opportunity to choose the most appropriate technique which is right for them. For this reason, the BIM model is therefore known to be an information model with adequate data that is both graphical and non-graphical (Maletz, 2016, p. 58). It links different documents to the project participants.
BIM modelling collaboration tools improve productivity in construction projects. The model has made it possible for different project teams and stakeholders operating in different geographical locations to be able to have a common interface which they can interact and work together at different stages of the project (Rajendran, & Clarke, 2011, p. 46). BIM is also able to generate construction documents which can be accessed by all teams whenever required. Team collaboration whileimplementing the design to build phase is very key in ensuring that quick and sustainable decisions are made.As Rajendran, and Clarke (2011, p. 44) states, it is at this stage where all the teams get a clear understanding of the building design and construction. The collaboration of the stakeholders in the construction industry is the main factor which determines adherence to the set timelines of thecompletion of the project.
BIM is a very powerful visualization tool. When adopted in building design and construction, it gives the three-dimensional virtual view of the design. At the bidding phase, the construction manager is able to give the renderings, sequencing, and walkthroughs of the design determined to be the model (Maskil-Leitan, and Reychav, 2018, p. 1017).This improves communication of the BIM concept in a three-dimensional view.
Visualisation gives the best understanding of the final appearance of the model or the design. BIM brings together all the traditional tools including two-dimensional views in order to develop three-dimensional views with detailed information (Maskil-Leitan, and Reychav, 2018, p. 1017). The virtual, for example, the building envelope and the laboratories can be developed and given to the designer and the client or the owner. This helps in advancing understanding and visualization. It is also highly significant in decision making on the aesthetics and the functional bit of the space. Virtual mockup gives benefits in reviewing the three-dimensional shop drawing designs of building envelope or laboratories (Marius, Leonas, Diana, Vladislavas, & Lukasz, 2018, p. 600). The mockups are very important and helpful in communication and collaboration among the project teams or participants ranging from the architects, engineers, contractor, subcontractor and the client or the owner of the facility.
Visualization is also important in the promotion and sequencing of curtain wall construction. Virtual mockups are cost efficient relative to physical mockup since the physical mock-up will still need a member of the project team, for example, a caseworker drawer or the during assembling of the building which will need various physical tests to be carried out. Therefore, a virtual mocker becomes the best standard to start a mockup process after approval (Maskil-Leitan, and Reychav, 2018, p. 1022).BIM technology generates a three-dimensional view which gives the virtual outcome of the building facility to the customer. The visualization benefit of the BIM will enable the customer to make a quick decision on whether the design as per the expectations. In addition, the three-dimensional view models give government agencies a clear understanding of the design for certification and regulation purposes. According to Maskil-Leitan, and Reychav (2018, p. 1021), since the construction industry is growing very rapidly,urbanization and construction have become morecomplex. Complexity in the management of visualization tool of BIM eliminates any future demolitions of the constructionsthus improving efficiency in the management of the construction industry.
One of the most important parts of construction projects is budget management. It is critical from the design process to the bidding phase. The BIM tool is very important in cost estimations in terms of materials and other requirements in completingvarious project activities. BIM modelling generates the bill of quantities which can be achieved by directly linking the design tool and the estimating software (Shoubi, Shoubi, Bagchi, & Barough, 2015, p. 43). There are two elements of cost estimation in the building information modelling: Quantity take off, and pricing. In BIM, quantities can be extracted to the excel file or sometimes the cost database, although pricing cannot be performed automatically or generated from the building information modelling tool. Expertise is required in cost estimation so as to analyze the quantities of the materials and cost and be able to determine the how they can be install. The database may not contain the pricing of certain activities which may require cost estimator to carry out a further breakdown of the element to achieve more accurate pricing (Shoubi, Shoubi, Bagchi, & Barough, 2015, p. 44). For example, if an act of concrete pour is be carried out, the building information modelling may account for the level f the detail for the pour stop, wire mesh, rebar, formwork, concrete but this does not include it as part of the quantity extraction take off (Gerbov, Singh, & Herva, 2018 p. 12). The building information modelling requires the cost estimator to give these details so that model will figure out the unit price which comprises of the of the unit material cost, unit labour cost, overhead, and profit.
The unit labour cost is controlled by the installation durations and mobilization, and the labour cost wage. The unit material cost is the total material cost being used for the activity per unit. When the unit price has been achieved the cost of the activity is derived by multiplying the total quantity extracted from the building information modelling and the unit price (Gerbov, Singh, & Herva, 2018 p. 14). The data output is good as the data input in building information model. This calls for the constructor and the designer to agree on definitions of the component. For example, if the concrete slab is being used by the architect to show the roof for the purpose of modelling the roof quantity information may not be accounted accurately for the quantity extraction purposes in the model. Generally, the BIM tool is very important in the optimization of the productivity of the cost estimator through the extraction of the quantity from the model (Gerbov, Singh, & Herva, 2018 p. 16). This is achieved through the collaboration of the project teams during the design phase.
The research proposal has discussed four main benefits of using building information modelling including proper coordination, visualization, cost estimation, and collaboration. Visualization is the simplest benefit of using BIM. When BIM models are produced, the takeoffs of the quantity can be generated to produce cost estimates of the construction project. 3D coordination was used to detect and remove trade clashes and conflicts. This was more seen from detailed prefabrication drawing which is produced to review and coordinate activities between trade teams. When the drawing has been done to build, the prefabrication of the components of the materials for the construction of the facility can be built to design. BIM based on four-dimensional scheduling gives a proper understanding of the construction of material components and the schedule of the progress of the activity which gives better results in construction planning.
BIM can be combined with other planning techniques and three-dimensional models tools to provide better construction monitoring services. When based on construction monitoring and construction planning this can be used in strategizingin the construction industry.Design to build activities which include cost estimation, collaboration, visualization and proper coordination can use immediately information or data generated from building information modelling tools. Proper planning and monitoring achieved in collaboration of teams are being utilized to ensure the construction is built to design. Build to design requires collaboration between the design and implementation teams.
In this research proposal, the applications and benefits of building information modelling tools have been discussed in detail. A review of the tools of BIM has also been discussed. It can be noted that the BIM concept and its tool has recently been gaining a lot of popularity in the construction industry recently. It has become a common practice mainly due to the challenges experienced with traditional tools and two-dimensional models.These issues are currently being addressedthrough the application of BIM, thus making building design and construction more cost effective, efficient and time-saving, an aspect which will eventually improve labour productivity. BIM is a parametric model which the construction industry uses in the design, coordination, and prefabrication of material components of buildings.