Where in the cell does replication occur?

1. Define:
a. replication,
b. leading and lagging strands,
c. replication fork,
d. replication origin,
e. template, semi-conservative method

2. List the DNA purine and pyrimidine bases.

3. In which chemical direction does replication occur?

4. Where in the cell does replication occur?
a. prokaryotes
b. eukaryotes

5. DNA nucleotide: phosphate + sugar + N-base
Name the sugar used in DNA.
List the four N-bases that are used in DNA.

6. Approximately, how much time is required for replication to
occur in:

a. prokaryotes?
b. eukaryotes?

7. Typically, how many replication origins are formed in:
a. prokaryotes?
b. eukaryotes?

8. In replication, what do the following enzymes do?
a. helicases
b. single-strand binding proteins
c. DNA polymerases
d. DNA ligase

9. What are Okazaki fragments?
What is the length (# of nucleotides) of these fragments?
What enzyme joins these fragments together?

10. Understand the replication process.

11. Describe work done by:
James Watson and Francis Crick.
Chargaff (Chargaff’s rule).

Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins

12. Replicate: 5’

ATG 3’

1. Define:
a. transcription,
b. reverse transcription,
c. reverse transcriptase,
d. RNA polymerases,
e. codon and anticodon,
f. sense and nonsense codons,
g. terminator and promotor regions,
h. transcription unit, polyribosome
2. List the RNA purine and pyrimidine bases.
3. In which chemical direction do the following occur?
a. transcription
b. translation
4. Describe the major types of cellular RNA.
a. mRNA
b. rRNA
c. tRNA

d. snRNA (in eukaryotes only)

5. List the start codon and the amino acid it codes for.
List the three stop (nonsense) codons.

6. Where in the cell do transcription and translation occur in
a. prokaryotes
b. eukaryotes

7. RNA nucleotide: phosphate + sugar + N-base
Name the sugar used in RNA.
List the four N-bases that are used in RNA.

8. Before translation occurs in eukaryotic cells, the pre-mRNA
must be processed to form the mRNA. Understand the process.
What are introns and exons?

9. In the priming process:
a. what is a primer?
b. what function does primase serve?

10. Why are RNA polymerases considered more versatile than
DNA polymerases?

11. Understand the three stages of translation:
a. initiation
b. elongation
c. termination

12. What are the two subunits of a ribosome?

13. Explain the wobble concept.
Adenine can be modified into inosine (I) and carried by __RNA.
Inosine can bind to ____, ____, or ____.

14. Explain, :redundancy of the code."

15. Transcribe and translate: 5’

ATG 3’

16. compare: mutation, mutagens, mutagenesis

17. Describe the following ways in which eukaryotes can
acquire new genotypes.
a. crossing-over

b. mutations

18. Describe the following ways in which prokaryotes can
acquire new genotypes.
a. mutations
b. conjugation
c. transduction
d. transformation
19. Describe the following types of mutations:
a. base substitution
1. nonsense mutation
2. missense mutation
3. neutral mutation
b. deletion and insertion

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