Which of the following biological processes are controlled by cell signaling?

One of the classic tools for treating depression which is not corrected by drugs is electroconvulsive shock. The patient has his/her brain electrically stimulated so as to induce convulsion. The treatment works in that it decreases the level of depression. How would the electroconvulsive treatment work?

A: cause a decrease in blood flow to the brain areas of the brain that control mood.
B: cause in increase in postsynaptic chemical release in those areas of the brain that control mood.
C: cause a physical rearrangement of DNA in the brain to increase serotonin levels in those ares of the brain that control mood.
D: cause an increase in presynaptic chemical release in those areas of the brain that control mood.

2) Depression affects how you…

A: all of these
B: feel
C: behave
D: your physiology
E: think

3) A victim of a vampire attack has passed out. The vampire took too much blood. You give the victim an intravenous dose of adrenaline. Which of the following would the adrenaline affect first?

A: sympathetic tone
B: afterload
C: preload
D: contractility of cardiac capillaries

3) An 80 year old woman is found in her small living room to be cold to the touch. She is lying face down on the floor. Her face is bruised as well as her fingers. The bruises are due to which of the following?

A: damage to her heart
B: damage to all her blood vessels in her face which allows blood to leave the capillaries
C: damage to the autonomic nervous system which controls blood flow to the face
D: damage to the capillaries in her face which allows blood to leave the capillaries

4) A motor neuron is severely damaged by the infection of a poliovirus. Which of the following will be an expression of this infection?

A: patient’s sympathetic nervous system will not be able to increase heart rate
B: patient will not be able to sense pain
C: patient will be able to walk but not sense when he is walking
D: patient will not be able to move depending on which motor neurons are affected

5) The left atrium is damaged and is generating a great resistance to blood coming from pulmonary vein. What happens due to this pressure?

A: back up of blood causing a subsequent back flow of blood into the inferior vena cava
B: back up of blood into the pulmonary artery causing a generation of coronary artery edema
C: back up of blood into the pulmonary vein subsequently causing blood to leave the capillaries in the lung
D: back up of blood causing back flow into the superior vena cava

6) You have your earbuds in and listening to your favorite rock group: Hairy Legs. However, your cochlea has been destroyed due to a viral infection. Based on the information, which of the following is correct?

A: external ear will received and interpret the sound- similar to what occurs in any animals that depends on capturing sound.
B: Hammer, Anvil, Stirrups will be activated since they transfer the Hairy Legs songs from outside of ear to the cochlea. However, there will be “no” activation of the auditory cortex.
C: Hammer, Anvil, Stirrups will be activated since they transfer the Hairy Legs songs from outside of ear to the cochlea. However, there will be activation of the auditory cortex.
D: auditory cortex will receive and interpret the Hairy Legs’ latest song: Hummingbird

7) During inspiration, the inspired air enters the alveoli. What causes the alveoli to maintain its circular shape so that the inspired oxygen can diffuse the red blood cell?

A: anti cystic fibrosis factor
B: decreased oxygen pressure
C: increased oxygen pressure
D: surfactant

8) Precapillary sphincters control which of the following?

A: the interstitial pressure on the venous side of the capillary bed
B: hydrostatic pressure in the interstitial space of the capillary bed on the arterial side
C: blood flow into capillary beds of only skeletal muscle
D: blood flow into all capillary beds

9) You are a vampire and you bite your victim in the beck for some blood for your breakfast. Which component of the cardiovascular system in her neck would you puncture to get some blood but not kill the victim? You have a limited time to get the blood and you are hungry.

A: carotid neck arteries
B: the trachea since it has small blood vessels
C: capillaries
D: carotid neck veins

10) when a ligand attaches to a receptor, which of the following occurs first?

A: the ligand and receptor do not change shape but combine together to make a huge molecule that causes the signaling cascade
B: there is a change in shape of the ligand which causes the signaling cascade
C: there is a change in shape of the receptor which triggers the signaling cascade
D: there is a change in shape of the receptor which causes the ligand to be released

11) If there is a negative pressure in the thorax relative to the atmosphere, which way will air flow?

A: it has no affect
B: lungs to the atmosphere
C: it does not move
D: these factors play no role in terms of the movement of air. Bogus question
E: atmosphere to the lungs

12) Which of the following biological processes are controlled by cell signaling? Be complete in your answer.

A: depression
B: all of these
C: cancer
D: menstrual cycle
E: growth

13) What is the difference between smooth and skeletal muscle?

A: smooth muscles do not have thick and thin filaments
B: smooth muscles is organized similar to skeletal muscles in that they are both controlled y the spinal cord neurons
C: smooth muscles are under control of the autonomic nervous system while skeletal muscles are under the voluntary control of the somatic nervous system
D: smooth muscles do not use ATP for contraction-only skeletal muscle does

14) Activation of the autonomic nervous system results in which of the following?

A: inhibition of any kind of motor movement due to fright. you freeze.
B: activation or inactivation of all systems that have smooth muscle
C: activation of cardiac muscle after skeletal muscle activation
D: voluntary responses such as running away from an attacker

15) If there is edema(e.g. increase in interstitial fluid), what does it do to the volume of blood that enters the capillary bed? Imagine the edema surrounds the capillary bed and compresses the capillaries

A: increase capillary oncotic pressure
B: increases interstitial hydrostatic pressure
C: decrease capillary hydrostatic pressure
D: decrease interstitial oncotic pressure

16) Angine refers to a pain on the left side of the chest and arm that is due to…

A: bradycardia
B: high oxygen delivery to cardiac muscle
C: low production of ATP in cardiac muscle
D: Tachycardia
E: decreased blood flow to the lungs

17) The hair cells in the cochlea responds to the frequency and amplitude of sound. You are at a concert listening to a great group of drummers called “The Aztec Watch”. Which of the following is correct about the frequency receptors?

A: low frequency receptors are found in the beginning of the cochlea
B: high frequency receptors are found at the beginning of the cochlea
C: high frequency receptors are found at the end of the cochlea
D: low frequency receptors are donut closest to the eat ossicles

18) Which organ in the brain secretes growth hormone?

A: the amygdala
B: the cerebellum
C: the hypothalamus
D: the suprachiasmatic nucleus
E: the anterior pituitary

19) As the female volleyball player is running to spike the ball, the blood flow increases in her legs. Where would blood flow be decreased so there is more blood in the legs?

A: arms
B: intestines
C: brain
D: bones

20) The autonomic nervous system is part of the peripheral nervous system. What is the different between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions?

A: sympathetic division has preganglionic neurons in the organs
it innovates
B: stimulation of the parasympathetic division will cause an increase in heart rate
C: during fright, flight and frolic, the sympathetic nervous system activates the skeletal muscle directly
D: parasympathetic division has the vagus nerve as one of tis major components

21) Drinking large amounts of oxygenated water is considered a good way to increase performance in skeletal muscle. It works by which of the following mechanism?

A: your lungs are not able to extract oxygen from the oxygenated water. It is a scam.
B: increases oxygen to the lung which then increase the amount of oxygen attached to hemoglobin
C: increases ATP in the stomach which is then transferred the the muscle
D: increase ATP in the Kidney an d then transferred to the muscle

22) A person is shot in the abdomen and blood is flowing from his ruptured intestinal arteries. To minimize additional blood flow loss, which system will cause vasoconstriction?

A: parasympathetic and endocrine(testosterone)
B: sympathetic and endocrine(estrogen)
C: sympathetic and endocrine(adrenalin)
D: both sympathetic and parasympathetic working at the same time

23) Which hormone is released from the adrenal medulla during sympathetic stimulation of flight, fright and frolic?

A: steroids
B: adrenaline
C: amphetamines
D: dopamine

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